Mir-2 (project 1993)
Mir-2(pr.1993) was the latest "Mir" station replacement
project. Designed by RKK "Energia" it should be started at the beginning of
the 1996 and be finished no later than 1999. Unfortunately it was never done, but
some of the station elements ("Zvezda", "Pirs", NEP) are
build and now form core of the russian segment of the ISS.
The station would consist of the DOS-8 core module and a cross beam called
the NEP (Science Power Platform). This was equipped with MSB retractable solar
panels, remote controlled
thruster packages and small scientific packages. Four 3 to 4 tonnes mission modules were planned.
The project final
configuration has following modules:
Core Module (x1) – DOS-8 , known as
“Zvezda”. Includes primary living quarters including eating,
sleeping and sanitary facilities. This module was build and used in ISS.
Service Module (x1) – There is no other
information, except this should be smaller analogue of the
Module (x2) –
SO-1 “Pirs” module
with the APDS universal androgynous docking system, and a side hatch for
Universal Docking Module (x2) – Codename “USM”. Equipped
with gyrodynes for orienting the station and a passive docking port for docking
of Soyuz or Progress ferry spacecraft. Should have 6 docking points and 2 NEP attachment points.
Module (x1) –
Codename “TM”. Materials
experiments equipment. Based
on modified Progress-M2 vehicle.
Module (x1) – Codename “BTM”. Based on
modified Progress-M2 vehicle.
Earth Surveillance Module (x1) – Codename
“MDZZ”. Based on modified Progress-M2 vehicle.
NEP – Science Power Platform. Mount for 2
solar panels, 2 Solar Gas Turbine Units, Station heat radiator, 4 remote
controlled thruster pods and additional science equipment. Inner parts of the
NEP should contain gyrodynes and additional energy storage battery arrays.
Launched: Planned for
Reentered: Planned for
2005, with option to extend lifetime.
Principal uses: civilian space station
Orbit: typically 350-450 km, 64.8o
Crew size: 2-3, up to 6
(two longstay typical)
59.3 x 36.2 x 17.7 m (approximate, full configuration
with solar arrays extended)
Habitable volume: ?
Total mass: up to 90,000
kg fully assembled, up
to 15,000 kg scientific equipment.
Propellant mass: Core -
four tanks offering 860
kg capacity; refuelled by Progress ferries. Thruster pods – 4 tanks, possibly 2-3 tonnes capacity each.
Main propulsion system
engines: twin aft-mounted main engines, pressure-fed,
main engine thrust: 2 x 2.94 kN vac
specific impulse: 305 vac
Attitude control thrusters: 32 x 11D428A
–thrust 137 N (four
independent networks of 8
each) on the core module.Little is known for
thruster pods, according to existing drawing, it can be suggested, there were
planned 12 x 11D458 or derivative engines for each pod.
Power: 9 kW are
generated by two Sun-following 38 m2 solar wings on base block, spanning 29.7 m. Voltage
is 28.5 VDC. 38 kW are
generated by 2 solar wings and 2 solar turbo-generator power units. 8
NiCd batteries with 800A
capacity provide storage.
Life support: pressure maintained at 1,053-1,276 mbar, T 18-28oC,
humidity 20-70%, O2/N2 mixture with max O2
content 40%, CO2 3%. Pressurized air delivered by Progress, CO2
“Vozdukh” molecular sieves (for backup used chemical LiOH scrubber). 40 cartridges of O2-generating
NaClO3 sodium chlorate retained as backup to electrolytic “Electron” system
and used when >3 people aboard. Other modules provide additional life
support. General equivalent protection inside Mir-2 against radiation is typically 1 g/cm2.
Background noise level is 75 dB
Avionics/control: ODCC on-board digital computer complex in conjunction
with PINS platform-less inertial navigation system. Attitude/navigation information is
provided by IR Earth horizon scanning sensors, solar sonsors, star sensors,
Sun-presence sensors, automatic/manual star sextant, magnetometer, gyros and
linear accelerometers. Tne
onboard radio system have 5 subsystems: “Regul” – radio
(RSUS), television (TVS), internal telephone-telegraph communications (STTS),
the orbit radio-control system (RKO) and the Lira radio-technical system
(BRTS). The two NEP mounted compartments each
carry six gyrodyne control moment gyros. Station carries the S-band Kurs approach/docking system
forward/aft, and the older Salyut Igla only at the rear. Kurs holds station stationary while the
approaching vehicle conducts all the maneuvers. Unmanned vessels are docked
under ground control. Station
carries an aft steerable 11-14 GHz antenna for continuous links through GEO
Building plans: There was planned to
launch core block 12801 in the beginning of 1996, first USM module follows. Building of NEP must be done the same year using
modified Progress vehicles, or 1-2 “Buran” launches. VDU’s
must be delivered by modified Progresses too, but mounted, using manipulator
and rail, or in existence of the manipulator, using rail and cosmonaut physical
force. At the end of 1996, the SM module must be launched, followed by BTM at
1997 and TM at 1998.
status: Released, development
Semi-full Version 188.8.131.52 released.
Modular Version 184.108.40.206 released.
Building scenarios in development.
Launch Scenarios in development.
mesh updates – development paused.
ð Added core
of the station (includes “Zvezda” and USM modules and whole truss
with solar arrays and VDU’s) as single vessel.
station vessel have solar arrays which can rotate automatically toward the sun
and radiator, which automatically evades the sun.
station vessel have real-time automated thrust correction system, which can
compensate asymmetric module docking.
“manipulator” vessel, which have a working manipulator, and can
move by rails alongside the truss.
building scenario pack, modified to include manipulator and core vessel.
scenario pack, representing station building stages, which include core vessel.
modified “Progress” ferry vessel for delivering VDU pods.
all station modules as single vessels.
“Zvezda” and NEP-R3
have solar arrays which can rotate automatically toward the sun.
truss module joint also can automatically follow the sun, so if solar gas
turbine or solar arrays will be docked to the joint, they will be always in
proper orientation toward the sun.
module automatically rotates to evade the sun lightening.
ð All solar
arrays, radiators, solar gas turbines and antennas can be stowed.
pack representing station building
220.127.116.11 – 10 December 2007
Package 18.104.22.168 – 30 September 2007
3D modeling – Nikolay (NickD) Dimitrov
Programming – Yuri (Kulch) Kulchitski
concerning Mir-2 in Orbiter Forum
concerning development of Mir-2 in